Information System and Exchanges of Genetic Resources for Effective Crop Improvement
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- ItemCharacterization of 337 exon-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unique to the Indonesian soybean varieties(IAARD Press, 2020) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik PertanianGenome resequencing of five Indonesian soybean varieties resulted in a total of 2,597,286 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 257,598 insertions, and 202,157 deletions. Out of those SNPs, only 95,207 (2.15%) were located in the protein-coding region (exon). The objective of this study was to characterize 337 exon-based SNPs unique to the Indonesian soybean varieties. The study was conducted by taking SNP samples located in the exons using criteria of gene fragments containing the SNPs that were sequenced at least five times within each of the soybean varieties. Out of 95,154 gene-based SNPs detected, only 337 SNPs met the criteria. Each of the soybean varieties was genotyped with the 337 SNP loci, and the genotypic data were scored and analyzed. Results showed that 59 SNPs were common to all five soybean genotypes. A total of 43, 41, 25, 32 and 28 SNPs loci were unique to soybean genotype Davros, Grobogan, Malabar, Tambora and B3293, respectively. These unique SNPs can function as DNA fingerprints for each variety. Out of 59 common SNPs, 24 SNPs were mutations that change the amino acid sequence of the encoded proteins. These genes with amino acid change may have high economic values such as those controlling soybean adaptation in tropical climate, photoperiod insensitivity, disease and insect resistance genes. Expression analyses of the genes with amino acid change showed variation in the expression pattern across different soybean tissues. Functional genomic analysis is necessary to isolate genes useful for breeding purposes.
- ItemInventory and morphological characterization of local upland rice in the highlands of South Sumatra province(IAARD Press, 2020) Sasmita P. ...[at al]; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik PertanianSouth Sumatra has various types of local rice in various agroecosystems that have the potential as plant genetic resources (PGR) of food crops. At present, the existence of the PGR has been diminished due to genetic erosion. Inventory and characterization of local rice genetic resources were carried out in the highlands of South Sumatra during 20142017. The study was conducted in Muara Enim, Ogan Komering Ulu, Pagar Alam, and Lahat Regencies. The objective of the study was to inventory and characterize the PGR. The method used was exploration and desk study. Purposive sampling was applied. Morpho-agronomic characterization was carried out in situ and ex situ. Morphological observations were carried out by visually observing the parts of leaves, stems, panicles and unhulled seeds of the rice accessionsin the location. Morphological characteristics were analyzed descriptively by tabulation. Inventory result showed 17 varieties of local upland rice were spread across four regencies. Local upland rice varieties originating from the regencies with different biophysical characteristics showed differences in morphological characteristics. Among the 17 local varieties, 3 varieties were characterized, namely Setangkai, Barokah and Ayek Keruh. Morpho-agronomic characterization results showed that there was a high diversity of rice accessions collected from different locations in South Sumatra.
- ItemThe performance of growth and yield component of soybean varieties in Margodadi village, Ambarawa sub-district, Pringsewu regency, Lampung province, Indonesia(IAARD Press, 2020) Mustikawati D R. ...[at al]; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik PertanianEfforts to increase soybean production require superior varieties which are stable in every agroecology production center. Therefore, it is necessary to perform field evaluation of several new released soybean varieties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and yield potential of soybean varieties developed by Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute (ILETRI) Malang in a field experiment. Four soybean varieties (Devon 1, Dering 1, Gema and Gepak Kuning) were sown in Margodadi Village, Ambarawa Sub-district, Pringsewu Regency, Lampung Province, Indonesia from May to August 2017. Plots were arranged in randomized complete block design with six replicates. The variables observed were crop emergence at 7 DAS sowing, plant height and number of pods at harvest, pest attack on 1- month-old plants and at harvest, and seed yield. The results showed that Gepak Kuning gave the highest yield (2.13 t/ha), which indicated that this variety is suitable to be planted and developed in the location of the study.
- ItemScreening genetic resources of local accessions of Capsicum originated from East Java(IAARD Press, 2020) Purnomo S. ...[at al]; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik PertanianInventory and collection of local chili varieties in production centers in East Java had been carried out in the period 2013–2015 by East Java Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT). A total of 143 accessions of five chili species (Capsicum annuum L., C. frutescens L., C. chinense Jacq., C. baccatum L. and C. pubescens L) was collected from eight chili production centers in East Java and has been maintained by East Java AIAT. A set of 85 local chili accessions was selected and evaluated for agronomic performance and biochemical compounds. Among the five species, C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. dominated the distribution of chili species in East Java. The other three species were still found in some spots of farm households and highlands. C. pubescens, locally known as “Bodong” or “Wudel” chili, was found on the high slopes of Mount Semeru, whereas C. chinense, known as “Cotoh” chili by the locals, was also found in the highlands of Batu City. Based on agronomic performance there were several accessions with high-yielding potential (≥12 t/ha). Five accessions of C. frutescens collected from planting areas in the dryland with dry climate of Blitar not only had high yield potential, but also had high capsaicinoid content, low-fat content, low quercetin and high flavonoids and polyphenols. Phenotypic diversity and geographic origin may be useful as the criteria for selecting a good set of chili accessions.
- ItemDevelopment of physical color reference for Indonesia paddy collection(IAARD Press, 2020) Hidayatun N. ...[at al]; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik PertanianOne of the objectives of genebank management is to maintain the genetic identity of its collection. In order to maintain the genetic identity, it is important to check new seed against a reference collection. A simple morphological character for determining the reference collection is the color of lemma and palea. Lemma and palea is a pair of bract-like organ in the floret and have similar pattern of pigmentation and therefore can be treated together. The color of lemma and palea determine the seed color. To develop reference collection for grain color characterization of rice germplasm in the Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development (ICABIOGRAD) Genebank, 1,000 sample of seeds produced from different year of regeneration are characterized based on the lemma and color categories of the IRRI guidelines for the characterization and evaluation system. Samples of each category were then arranged and photographed. From 11 categories of lemma and palea color described in the guidelines, there are six color categories available from genebank rice collection, whereas five color categories were not found. The six available color categories were straw, golden, brown spot in the straw background, brown line in the straw background, brown, orange-brown and black. Five color categories were not found in the collections i.e. red-purple, purple spots on straw, purple line on straw, purple and white. This material reference could be used for characterization of Indonesian rice. The seeds of the absent categories might need to be aquisitated to the genebank to complete the reference collection.