Improvement of Soybean Yields under Acid Soil Conditions in Indonesia

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Central Research Institute for Food Crops
Acid soils usually are deficient in major nutrients such as phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, toxic to exchangeable aluminum and low cation exchange capacity. Soybean cultivate grown in this soil usually produced low yields. The soybean yield can be improved by growing soybean varieties tolerant to the acid soil, soil management, and nutrient management. Results of several experiments indicated that some varieties were more tolerant to acid soil than others. Some improved varieties were developed to obtained varieties tolerant to acid soil. Application of manure in acid soils increased organic matter content and increased soybean yields. Artificial soil conditioners did not affect the soybean yield, because they only affected soil physics but not the soil chemical properties. Plant inoculation with Rhizobium in an areas where soybean had not previously been grown increased nodule weight, percentage of nitrogen content, and seed yield. In some experiments, plant inoculation with Rhizobium In an areas where soybean had been grown increased soybean yield, but in other experiments did not affect the yield. Results of nitrogen fixation experiments using 1SN showed that total nitrogen fixed by soybean plants was 63.2 kg/ha or 45.4% from the total plant requirement of nitrogen. Liming at the rate of 1.0 to 1.5 x exchangeable aluminum was enough to obtain a good soybean yield. Anorganic fertilizers (P and K) were needed in the acid soils. The rate of P fertilizer was between 46 to 92 kg P2O5/ha, while and K fertilizer was 60 kg K2O/ha.
Glycine max, Improvement, acid soil, management, yield