Genetic Diversity Evaluated with Molecular Markers in International and Indonesian Soybean Germplasm
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Central Research Institute for Food Crops
To assess future breeding strategies for the development of soybean cultivars tolerant to acid soil a analysis of genetic diversity in Indonesian and international soybean germplasm was performed. Fourty-five of Indonesian, African, European, US, Brazilian and genebank origin were analysed. Genetic diversity calculations were based on data from molecular marker analysis. In total 25 RFLP, 22 RAPD, and 269 AFLP loci were evaluated. Based on genetic distances calculated from binary data, a multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. Multidimensional scaling demonstrated that the Indonesian genepool is separated from all other accessions. This was confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis which revealed a structure of six clusters within the investigated germplasm. The clusters could be correlated to the origin of genotypes. All but two Indonesian cultivars build a single cluster that contains no foreign genotypes. The other clusters are comprised by accessions of different ohgin. Nevertheless clusters clearly correspond to origin, if cultivars from southern USA are pooled together with Brazilian cultivars. These results were confirmed by available pedigree information. Seven ancestors contribute 63% of the genes of Indonesian cultivars released since 1974. Eight genotypes cover 74% of the genome of cultivars of southern USA and contribute strongly to the Brazilian genepool. The same genotypes cover only 16% of the genes of northern USA cultivars. Preliminary data of field trials suggest, that genetic similarity to the Indonesian genepool is positively correlated to field performance under Indonesian climatic conditions. Significance of molecular genetic information could be demonstrated and should be used to plan strategies of future breeding programs.
Soybean germplasm, molecular marker, cluster