Somatic Embryogenesis in Different Soybean Varieties

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Central Research Institute for Food Crops
National demand for soybean (Gfytine max L. Merrill) is higher that its production, so that Indonesia needs to import the commodity. The government has planned to extensity the crop to acid sort areas, which has not been managed at the maximum capacity. However, many problems faced in acid soil, particularly high content of aluminum and low pH, which inhibit the growth of plant Soybean variety tolerant to the condition is still limited. To improve the tolerance to aluminum, a study was conducted through in vitro selection. One of the problems needs to be accomplished is the method of cell regeneration, since no standard (repeatable) method has been established. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of genotypes (varieties), source of exptants, t^ne of subculturing/physiologycal condition of mother plant and other factors on the success of somatic embryogenesis The study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, 7 sources of explants respectively collected from 10 soybean varieties were tested for their response to callus induction on 18 formulation media and to embryo maturation on 25 formulation media, Callus induction media were Murashige and Skoog (MS) or Phillips and Collins (PC-L2) in the combination with 2.4-0 (0-40 mg/I), picloram (0-0.01 mg/f), 8A (0-0.5 mg/l), kinetin (0-0.1 mg/l), NAA (0-10 mg/l), and several amino acids. Meanwhile for somatic embryo maturation basal media MS or PC-L2 had been used in the combination with 2,4-0 (0-0 05 mg/l). BA (0-0 5 mg/l), NAA (0-0.3 mg/l), zeatm (0-1 mg/l). GA3 (0-0.1 mg/l), manitoi, and charcoal. The best explants from first expenment were then used in second experiment. Results showed that 5 varieties (Bromo, Tambora, Wills, Black Manchu, and Argomulyo) were responsive to the treatments. From 18 media formulations. 5 formulae gave good results for embryonic callus, which developed into embryosomatic structures. Culture in MS media with high concentration of auxin, NAA (10 mg/i) or 2,4-0 (40 mg/l) and amino acid, followed by subculture in the media with low concentration of 2,4-D produced embryonic callus which was able to develop to bipolar embryo. For maturation and germination, somatic embryo structures were tubcuKured on a media without euxtn. The best methods of somatic embryogenesis produced in this study were repeatable and relatively produced high regeneration ability.
Gtycine max. aluminum, in vitro