Workshop on Soybean Biotechnology for Aluminum Tolerance on Acid Soils and Disease Resistance


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 12
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    Improvement of Soybean Yields under Acid Soil Conditions in Indonesia
    (Central Research Institute for Food Crops, 2001-02) Sunarlim ...[at al], Novianti; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian
    Acid soils usually are deficient in major nutrients such as phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, toxic to exchangeable aluminum and low cation exchange capacity. Soybean cultivate grown in this soil usually produced low yields. The soybean yield can be improved by growing soybean varieties tolerant to the acid soil, soil management, and nutrient management. Results of several experiments indicated that some varieties were more tolerant to acid soil than others. Some improved varieties were developed to obtained varieties tolerant to acid soil. Application of manure in acid soils increased organic matter content and increased soybean yields. Artificial soil conditioners did not affect the soybean yield, because they only affected soil physics but not the soil chemical properties. Plant inoculation with Rhizobium in an areas where soybean had not previously been grown increased nodule weight, percentage of nitrogen content, and seed yield. In some experiments, plant inoculation with Rhizobium In an areas where soybean had been grown increased soybean yield, but in other experiments did not affect the yield. Results of nitrogen fixation experiments using 1SN showed that total nitrogen fixed by soybean plants was 63.2 kg/ha or 45.4% from the total plant requirement of nitrogen. Liming at the rate of 1.0 to 1.5 x exchangeable aluminum was enough to obtain a good soybean yield. Anorganic fertilizers (P and K) were needed in the acid soils. The rate of P fertilizer was between 46 to 92 kg P2O5/ha, while and K fertilizer was 60 kg K2O/ha.
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    Performances of Soybean Breeding Lines in Dryland Acid Soils
    (Central Research Institute for Food Crops, 2001-02) Arsyad ...[at al], Darman M.; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian
    In 1995, a field trial was conducted in North Lampung to evaluate soybean germ pi asm in an effort to develop soybean cultivars suitable for acid soils in Sumatera. Thirty soybean genotypes were selected from 350 germ pi asm accessions based on their agronomic performances. These genotypes were then reevaluated, and four genotypes were selected. Twelve single-cross combinations were made, and pedigree as well as bulk methods were used for inbreeding from F2 to Fs generations. A number of 80 Fg breeding lines were evaluated and selected for tolerance to acid soils in North Lampung. Selected 10 F7 lines along with check cultivars Wilis, Slamet, and Sindoro were reevaluated in Lampung and North Sumatera provinces. A breeding line K3911-66 was identified as the best line with good adaptability to both trial sites. Lines D3578-4 and D3623-22 well adapted to North Sumatera and Lampung conditions. Those breeding lines were considered as promising lines that need to be evaluated further In other locations and seasons.
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    Genetic Diversity Evaluated with Molecular Markers in International and Indonesian Soybean Germplasm
    (Central Research Institute for Food Crops, 2001-02) Schenkel ...[at al], Werner; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian
    To assess future breeding strategies for the development of soybean cultivars tolerant to acid soil a analysis of genetic diversity in Indonesian and international soybean germplasm was performed. Fourty-five of Indonesian, African, European, US, Brazilian and genebank origin were analysed. Genetic diversity calculations were based on data from molecular marker analysis. In total 25 RFLP, 22 RAPD, and 269 AFLP loci were evaluated. Based on genetic distances calculated from binary data, a multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. Multidimensional scaling demonstrated that the Indonesian genepool is separated from all other accessions. This was confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis which revealed a structure of six clusters within the investigated germplasm. The clusters could be correlated to the origin of genotypes. All but two Indonesian cultivars build a single cluster that contains no foreign genotypes. The other clusters are comprised by accessions of different ohgin. Nevertheless clusters clearly correspond to origin, if cultivars from southern USA are pooled together with Brazilian cultivars. These results were confirmed by available pedigree information. Seven ancestors contribute 63% of the genes of Indonesian cultivars released since 1974. Eight genotypes cover 74% of the genome of cultivars of southern USA and contribute strongly to the Brazilian genepool. The same genotypes cover only 16% of the genes of northern USA cultivars. Preliminary data of field trials suggest, that genetic similarity to the Indonesian genepool is positively correlated to field performance under Indonesian climatic conditions. Significance of molecular genetic information could be demonstrated and should be used to plan strategies of future breeding programs.
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    Current Progress of Research on Soybean Diseases in Indonesia
    (Central Research Institute for Food Crops, 2001-02) Machmud ...[at a], Muhammad; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian
    Recent field surveys indicated that the major soybean disease in Indonesia are soybean stunt, peanut stripe, cowpea mild mottle, bacterial blight, bacterial pustule, rust, and anthracnose. In 1990-1999, research on soybean diseases have been done on the following aspects: (a) field surveys, (b) etiology of the diseases, (c) ecobiology of the pathogens such as strain identification, (d) development of techniques for detection of the pathogens from seeds and other plant parts, and (e) control of the diseases through development and screening of soybean genotypes resistant to the pathogens and biological control such as using antagonistic microbes. This paper is an overview of research progress on soybean diseases in Indonesia that have been done in the past ten years.
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    Comparative Studies on Inducible Antimicrobial Defense Reactions in Soybean Cultivars
    (Central Research Institute for Food Crops, 2001-02) Groten, Karin; Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian
    Plants react to microbial attack with a number of defence mechanisms which include a rapid formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cross-linking of cell wall proteins and strengthening of the plant cell wall, induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway, synthesis of phenolic compounds, accumulation of antimicrobial compounds named phytoatexins, synthesis of fungal wall degrading enzymes {glucanases, chitinases) and a rapid localized cell death. These defence responses can also be Induced by application of various biotic and abiotic substances (elicitors) to cell suspension cultures. Most analyses of defence reactions were performed on a few cuttivars and elicitors. There is little knowledge about the reactivity of different cultivars against various stimuli. Therefore, suspension cultured soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.) cells of four cultivars (Wills, Lumut, Kalmit, Dokb RC) were treated either with crude cell wall extracts of the fungal pathogens Phytophlhora sojae, Rhizoctonia solani, Athelia mlfsii (Pmg-, Riso-, Aro-elicitor, respectively) or with two isolates of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syrmgae pv. glycinea (Psg01'02). Cells of all four cultivars showed the same range of defence reactions but time courses and intensities differed significantly between the cultivars. Furthermore, the reactivity of the cultivars depended on the tested elicitor. A common response to el citation is the rapid release of ROS called oxidative burst. Comparing the amount of H^O; induced by the fungal elicitors three cuttivars produced significantly less H^Oj after application of Pmg-elicitor than with Riso-elictor, only Doko RC showed equal values for both elicitors. These differences in the expression of an oxidative burst corresponded with a rapid and transient alkalinization of the ceil culture medium after elicitation. Those elicitors that caused a strong oxidative burst were also capable of Inducing a greater alkalinization. Nevertheless there is no causal relationship beetween the two reactions as could be shown by specific inhibitors of the oxidative burst. Activation of the phenylpropanoid metabolism is an important step for the synthesis of various secondary compounds (i.e. [iso]-flavonoids, Itgnin-like substances, soluble phenolics). Phenylaianine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolism, was activated after elicitor-treatment. The enzyme activity was stronger after addition of Riso-elicitor than after application of bacterial suspensions. The intensity of PAL-activity correlated with an increase of soluble phenolic compounds in the culture medium but not with an accumulation of the isoflavonoid phytoalexins. These results suggest that soybean cultivars recognise the same stimuli but differ In the intensity of elicltor-induced defence reactions. This is probably due to a difrent recognition of the elicitors at the plasma membrane.