Dynamics of Indonesian Robusta Coffee Competition Among Major Competitor Countries

Fluctuations in Indonesian Robusta coffee exports occurred along with a declining trend in coffee exports compared to major competitor countries over the past fifteen years.  This research aimed to analyze the dynamics of the competitiveness of Indonesian Robusta coffee exports and the level of competition among the major competitor countries such as Vietnam and India. The methods used are Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Dynamic Revealed Comparative Advantage (DRCA), and Rank Spearman Correlation. These methods were selected to analyze changes in competition level within 15 years’ time dimension (2000–2015) as well as to analyze the relationships among competing countries, which may affect Robusta coffee market of each country. The analysis showed that Indonesia's coffee competitiveness tends to increase compared to the two major competitors of Robusta coffee exporter of the world such as Vietnam and India. However, Indonesia's coffee competitiveness is still a half below Vietnam. The Indonesian coffee rivalry against Vietnam and India is not significantly correlated due to the different markets of export destination countries.  Increasing competitiveness and the strength of competition in export market can be done through quality improvement and continuity of domestic Robusta coffee in accordance to the demand of world consumers.
Dalam kurun waktu lima belas tahun terakhir, terjadi fluktuasi ekspor kopi Robusta Indonesia dengan kecenderungan yang semakin menurun dibandingkan negara pesaing utama. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis dinamika daya saing ekspor kopi Robusta Indonesia dan tingkat persaingan antar negara pesaing utama, seperti Vietnam dan India. Metode yang digunakan, yaitu Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Dynamic Revealed Comparative Advantage (DRCA), dan Rank Spearman Correlation. Metode tersebut digunakan untuk menganalisis perubahan tingkat persaingan dalam dimensi waktu 15 tahun (2000–2015) serta menganalisis hubungan antar negara pesaing yang dapat memengaruhi pasar kopi Robusta setiap negara. Hasil analisis menunjukkan daya saing kopi Indonesia cenderung meningkat dibandingkan dua pesaing utama pengekspor kopi Robusta dunia, seperti Vietnam dan India. Namun, daya saing kopi Indonesia masih setengah kali di bawah Vietnam. Persaingan kopi Indonesia dengan Vietnam dan India tidak berkorelasi signifikan karena perbedaan pasar negara tujuan ekspor. Peningkatan daya saing dan kekuatan kompetisi di pasar ekspor dapat dilakukan melalui peningkatan kualitas serta kontinuitas kopi Robusta domestik sesuai dengan permintaan konsumen dunia.
Competitiveness; DRCA; rank spearman correlation; RCA; Robusta coffee, Q02, Q17, Daya saing; DRCA; kopi Robusta; korelasi rank spearman; RCA,