Respon dan Variasi Pertumbuhan Planlet Asal Kalus Tiga Kultivar Nilam (Pogostemon Cablin Benth.) Hasil Iradiasi Sinar Gamma
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Patchouli is one of plants that produce atsiri oil. The one of the problems that encountered in the breeding of patchouli plant is that Lhoksemawe, Tapaktuan and Sidikalang cultivars has low genetic variability because of its have no flower. Genetic variation can be increased by gamma ray irradiation. The objective of this research was to study the growth callus of three cultivars patchouli after irradiating by gamma ray. The experiment was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory Technology D-3, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran. Irradiation of gamma ray to callus of three cultivars was conducted at Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jakarta. The experiment was conducted from October until June 2012. A descriptive method was used in this experiment. The three cultivar of patchouli that consisted of Tapaktuan, Lhokseumawe and Sidikalang and five irradiation dosage (0 Krad (control), 0.5 Krad, 1 Krad, 1.5 Krad and 2 Krad) were used in this experiment. The result showed that Lhokseumawe cultivar without irradiation has the highest number of shoot and root than another treatment, the highest number of leaf than another treatment showed by Lhokseumawe cultivar without irradiation and the highest number of root than another treatment showed by Tapaktuan cultivar without irradiation. In 1 Krad dosage, Tapaktuan cultivar is showed fast response on time of shoot induction character with time averages 15 After Day Irradiation (ADI). The variation of time shoot induction for each irradiation gamma ray dosage is wide. The variation of time shoot induction for each three cultivars is wide. The variation of number shoot for each irradiation gamma ray dosage is wide. The variation of number shoot for cultivars Lhokseumawe and Tapaktuan is wide except Sidikalang cultivar. The variation of number leaf for 0 Krad; 0.5 Krad; 1 Krad; and 1.5 Krad irradiation gamma ray dosage is wide except 2 Krad. The variation of number leaf for each three cultivars is wide. The variation of number root for 0 Krad; 0.5 Krad; 1 Krad; and 2 Krad irradiation gamma ray dosage is wide except 1.5 Krad. The variation of number root for cultivars Lhokseumawe and Tapaktuan is wide except Sidikalang cultivar.
Gamma ray, irradiation, patchouli, tissue culture,genetic variability.