IMPLIKASI KEBIJAKAN HARGA ECERAN TERTINGGI BERAS TERHADAP PROFITABILITAS USAHA TANI PADI DAN HARGA, KUALITAS, SERTA SERAPAN BERAS
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Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian
Rice is a staple food for the vast majority of Indonesian people. In order to maintain the stability of rice price, the government has set a rice ceiling price (RCP) policy based on the type of rice and distribution areas. This policy was issued through the Minister of Trade Regulation No. 57/2017 that has been in effect since 1 September 2017. This study aims to examine the impact of RCP policy on the profitability of rice farming, rice prices in traditional and modern markets, shift in rice quality traded, and paddy and rice procurement by Perum Bulog. This study was conducted in three provinces of rice production centre, namely West Java, East Java and South Sulawesi. The study employed a descriptive-qualitative approach. Main results of this study showed that after implementation of RCP policy, profitability of rice farming increased; market prices for medium quality have risen approaching the medium RCP, while premium rice prices tend to decline but were still stable at high level around the RCP for premium quality; most rice traded in the markets shifted from medium to premium quality; and government rice procurement by Bulog decreased significantly. Besides profit margins, the loosening of the broken grain criteria for medium and premium rice quality and the absence of certification regarding the differentiation of medium and premium quality is suspected to be the cause of shifting quality of rice traded. It is suggested that RCP policy should be accompanied by a clear and firm regulation on the criteria of rice quality.